Pascal Arnoux, Christian Ruppelt, Flore Oudouhou, Jérôme Lavergne, Marina I. Siponen, René Toci, Ralf R. Mendel, Florian Bittner, David Pignol, Axel Magalon & Anne Walburger
Nature Communications, vol 6, Feb 4th (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7148
Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are of interest as they are natural catalysts that sequester atmospheric CO2, generating reduced carbon compounds with possible uses as fuel. FDHs activity in Escherichia coli strictly requires the sulphurtransferase EcFdhD, which likely transfers sulphur from IscS to the molybdenum cofactor (Mo-bisPGD) of FDHs. Here we show that EcFdhDbinds Mo-bisPGD in vivo and has submicromolar affinity for GDP—used as a surrogate of the molybdenum cofactor’s nucleotide moieties. The crystal structure of EcFdhD in complex with GDPshows two symmetrical binding sites located on the same face of the dimer. These binding sites are connected via a tunnel-like cavity to the opposite face of the dimer where two dynamic loops, each harbouring two functionally important cysteine residues, are present. On the basis of structure-guided mutagenesis, we propose a model for the sulphuration mechanism of Mo-bisPGD where the sulphur atom shuttles across the chaperone dimer.
Biaso F., Burlat B., Guigliarelli B
The periplasmic nitrate reductase NAP belongs to the DMSO reductase family that regroups molybdoenzymes housing a bis-molybdopterin cofactor as the active site. Several forms of the Mo(V) state, an intermediate redox state in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme, have been evidenced by EPR spectroscopy under various conditions, but their structure and catalytic relevance are not fully understood. On the basis of structural data available from the literature, we built several models that reproduce the first coordination sphere of the molybdenum cofactor and used DFT methods to make magneto-structural correlations on EPR-detected species. “High-g” states, which are the most abundant Mo(V) species, are characterized by a low-anisotropy g tensor and a high gmin value. We assign this signature to a six-sulfur coordination sphere in a pseudotrigonal prismatic geometry with a partial disulfide bond. The “very high-g” species is well described with a sulfido ion as the sixth ligand. The “low-g” signal can be successfully associated to a Mo(V) sulfite–oxidase-type active site with only one pterin moiety coordinated to the molybdenum ion with an oxo or sulfido axial ligand. For all these species we investigate their catalytic activity using a thermodynamic point of view on the molybdenum coordination sphere. Beyond the periplasmic nitrate reductase case, this work provides useful magneto-structural correlations to characterize EPR-detected species in mononuclear molybdoenzymes.
Thomé R, Gust A, Toci R, Mendel R, Bittner F, Magalon A, Walburger A.
l-Cysteine desulfurases provide sulfur to several metabolic pathways in the form of persulfides on specific cysteine residues of an acceptor protein for the eventual incorporation of sulfur into an end product. IscS is one of the three Escherichia coli l-cysteine desulfurases. It interacts with FdhD, a protein essential for the activity of formate dehydrogenases (FDHs), which are iron/molybdenum/selenium-containing enzymes. Here, we address the role played by this interaction in the activity of FDH-H (FdhF) in E. coli. The interaction of IscS with FdhD results in a sulfur transfer between IscS and FdhD in the form of persulfides. Substitution of the strictly conserved residue Cys-121 of FdhD impairs both sulfur transfer from IscS to FdhD and FdhF activity. Furthermore, inactive FdhF produced in the absence of FdhD contains both metal centers, albeit the molybdenum cofactor is at a reduced level. Finally, FdhF activity is sulfur-dependent, as it shows reversible sensitivity to cyanide treatment. Conclusively, FdhD is a sulfurtransferase between IscS and FdhF and is thereby essential to yield FDH activity.