J Jacques, B Burlat, P Arnoux, M Sabaty, B Guigliarelli, C Léger, D Pignol, V Fourmond
Periplasmic nitrate reductase catalyzes the reduction of nitrate into nitrite using a mono- nuclear molybdenum cofactor that has nearly the same structure in all enzymes of the DMSO reductase family. In previous electrochemical investigations, we found that the enzyme exists in several inactive states, some of which may have been previously iso- lated and mistaken for catalytic intermediates. In particular, the enzyme slowly and reversibly inactivates when exposed to high concentrations of nitrate. Here, we study the kinetics of substrate inhibition and their dependence on electrode potential and sub- strate concentration to learn about the properties of the active and inactive forms of the enzyme. We conclude that the substrate-inhibited enzyme never significantly accu- mulates in the EPR-active Mo(+V) state. This conclusion is relevant to spectroscopic investigations where attempts are made to trap a Mo(+V) catalytic intermediate using high concentrations of nitrate.
JG Jacques; V Foumond; P Arnoux; M Sabaty; E Etienne; S Grosse; F Biaso; P Bertrand; D Pignol; C Léger; B Guigliarelli; B Burlat
In Rhodobacter sphaeroides periplasmic nitrate reductase NapAB, the major Mo(V) form (the “high g” species) in air-purified samples is inactive and requires reduction to irreversibly convert into a catalytically competent form (Fourmond et al., J. Phys. Chem., 2008). In the present work, we study the kinetics of the activation process by combining EPR spectroscopy and direct electrochemistry. Upon reduction, the Mo (V) “high g” resting EPR signal slowly decays while the other redox centers of the protein are rapidly reduced, which we interpret as a slow and gated (or coupled) intramolecular electron transfer between the [4Fe–4S] center and the Mo cofactor in the inactive enzyme. Besides, we detect spin–spin interactions between the Mo(V) ion and the [4Fe–4S]1 + cluster which are modified upon activation of the enzyme, while the EPR signatures associated to the Mo cofactor remain almost unchanged. This shows that the activation process, which modifies the exchange coupling pathway between the Mo and the [4Fe–4S]1 + centers, occurs further away than in the first coordination sphere of the Mo ion. Relying on structural data and studies on Mo-pyranopterin and models, we propose a molecular mechanism of activation which involves the pyranopterin moiety of the molybdenum cofactor that is proximal to the [4Fe–4S] cluster. The mechanism implies both the cyclization of the pyran ring and the reduction of the oxidized pterin to give the competent tricyclic tetrahydropyranopterin form.
Thomé R, Gust A, Toci R, Mendel R, Bittner F, Magalon A, Walburger A.
l-Cysteine desulfurases provide sulfur to several metabolic pathways in the form of persulfides on specific cysteine residues of an acceptor protein for the eventual incorporation of sulfur into an end product. IscS is one of the three Escherichia coli l-cysteine desulfurases. It interacts with FdhD, a protein essential for the activity of formate dehydrogenases (FDHs), which are iron/molybdenum/selenium-containing enzymes. Here, we address the role played by this interaction in the activity of FDH-H (FdhF) in E. coli. The interaction of IscS with FdhD results in a sulfur transfer between IscS and FdhD in the form of persulfides. Substitution of the strictly conserved residue Cys-121 of FdhD impairs both sulfur transfer from IscS to FdhD and FdhF activity. Furthermore, inactive FdhF produced in the absence of FdhD contains both metal centers, albeit the molybdenum cofactor is at a reduced level. Finally, FdhF activity is sulfur-dependent, as it shows reversible sensitivity to cyanide treatment. Conclusively, FdhD is a sulfurtransferase between IscS and FdhF and is thereby essential to yield FDH activity.
Fourmond V, Sabaty M, Arnoux D, Bertrand P, Pignol D, Léger C.
We examined the kinetics of nitrate reduction by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) by using protein film voltammetry and solution assays. We demonstrate that, under turnover conditions, the enzyme exists as a mixture of active and inactive forms which interconvert on a time scale that is much slower than turnover. The dead-end species accumulates under mildly reducing conditions and at high nitrate concentration, resulting in substrate inhibition and in an uncommon hysteresis in the voltammetric signature. Solution assays with two electron donors having different reduction potentials fully support the electrochemical results. This illustrates the consequences of the high flexibility of the active site molybdenum coordination sphere and questions the conclusions from earlier studies in which attempts were made to trap catalytic intermediates of Nap in experiments carried out under turnover conditions at very high substrate concentration.
Fourmond V, Burlat B, Dementin S, Sabaty M, Arnoux D, Etienne E, Guigliarelli B, Bertrand P, Pignol D, Léger C
Biochemistry. 2010 Mar 23;49(11):2424-32. doi: 10.1021/bi902140e.
Rhodobacter sphaeroides periplasmic nitrate reductase (Rs NapAB) is one of the enzymes whose assays give odd results: in spectrophotometric assays with methyl viologen as the electron donor, the activity increases as the reaction progresses, whereas the driving force provided by the soluble redox partner decreases; in protein film voltammetry (PFV), whereby the enzyme directly exchanges electrons with an electrode, the activity of NapAB decreases at large overpotential, whereas a monotonic increase is expected [Elliott, S. J., et al. (2002) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1555, 54−59]. The relations between these phenomena and the catalytic mechanism are still debated. By studying NapAB mutants, we found that the peculiar dependences of electrochemical and solution activities on driving force are greatly affected by substituting certain amino acids that are located in the vicinity of the active site (M153, Q384, R392); this led us to establish and discuss the relation between the experimental parameters of the electrochemical and spectrophotometric assays: we show that the rate of reduction of the enzyme (which depends on the electrode potential or on the concentration of reduced MV) modulates the activity of the enzyme, but the “solution potential” does not. Our results also support the view that the complex profiles of activity versus potential are fingerprints of the active site chemistry, rather than direct consequences of changes in the redox states of relays that are remote from the active site.