Arias-Cartin R, Grimaldi S, Arnoux P, Guigliarelli B, Magalon A.
The structural and functional integrity of biological membranes is vital to life. The interplay of lipids and membrane proteins is crucial for numerous fundamental processes ranging from respiration, photosynthesis, signal transduction, solute transport to motility. Evidence is accumulating that specific lipids play important roles in membrane proteins, but how specific lipids interact with and enable membrane proteins to achieve their full functionality remains unclear. X-ray structures of membrane proteins have revealed tight and specific binding of lipids. For instance, cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid, has been found to be associated to a number of eukaryotic and prokaryotic respiratory complexes. Moreover, polar and septal accumulation of cardiolipin in a number of prokaryotes may ensure proper spatial segregation and/or activity of proteins. In this review, we describe current knowledge of the functions associated with cardiolipin binding to respiratory complexes in prokaryotes as a frame to discuss how specific lipid binding may tune their reactivity towards quinone and participate to supercomplex formation of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).
Grimaldi S, Arias-Cartin R, Lanciano P, Lyubenova S, Szenes R, Endeward B, Prisner TF, Guigliarelli B, Magalon A.
Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A (NarGHI) is a membrane-bound enzyme that couples quinol oxidation at a periplasmically oriented Q-site (QD) to proton release into the periplasm during anaerobic respiration. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying such a coupling, endogenous menasemiquinone-8 intermediates stabilized at the QD site (MSQD) of NarGHI have been studied by high-resolution pulsed EPR methods in combination with 1H2O/2H2O exchange experiments. One of the two non-exchangeable proton hyperfine couplings resolved in hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectra of the radical displays characteristics typical from quinone methyl protons. However, its unusually small isotropic value reflects a singularly low spin density on the quinone carbon α carrying the methyl group, which is ascribed to a strong asymmetry of the MSQD binding mode and consistent with single-sided hydrogen bonding to the quinone oxygen O1. Furthermore, a single exchangeable proton hyperfine coupling is resolved, both by comparing the HYSCORE spectra of the radical in 1H2O and 2H2O samples and by selective detection of the exchanged deuterons using Q-band 2H Mims electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. Spectral analysis reveals its peculiar characteristics, i.e. a large anisotropic hyperfine coupling together with an almost zero isotropic contribution. It is assigned to a proton involved in a short ∼1.6 Å in-plane hydrogen bond between the quinone O1 oxygen and the Nδ of the His-66 residue, an axial ligand of the distal heme bD. Structural and mechanistic implications of these results for the electron-coupled proton translocation mechanism at the QD site are discussed, in light of the unusually high thermodynamic stability of MSQD.
Arias-Cartin R, Grimaldi S, Pommier J, Lanciano P, Schaefer C, Arnoux P, Giordano G, Guigliarelli B, Magalon A.
Anionic lipids play a variety of key roles in membrane function, including functional and structural effects on respiratory complexes. However, little is known about the molecular basis of these lipid–protein interactions. In this study, NarGHI, an anaerobic respiratory complex of Escherichia coli, has been used to investigate the relations in between membrane-bound proteins with phospholipids. Activity of the NarGHI complex is enhanced by anionic phospholipids both in vivo and in vitro. The anionic cardiolipin tightly associates with the NarGHI complex and is the most effective phospholipid to restore functionality of a nearly inactive detergent-solubilized enzyme complex. A specific cardiolipin-binding site is identified on the basis of the available X-ray diffraction data and of site-directed mutagenesis experiment. One acyl chain of cardiolipin is in close proximity to the heme bD center and is responsible for structural adjustments of bD and of the adjacent quinol substrate binding site. Finally, cardiolipin binding tunes the interaction with the quinol substrate. Together, our results provide a molecular basis for the activation of a bacterial respiratory complex by cardiolipin.
Arias-Cartin R, Lyubenova S, Ceccalci P, Prisner T, Magalon A, Giugliarelli B, Grimaldi S
Through the use of an Escherichia coli strain deficient in menaquinone biosynthesis, purified nitrate reductase A (NarGHI)-enriched inner membrane vesicles were titrated and monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, revealing the formation of protein-bound ubisemiquinone (USQ) species. Two-dimensional ESEEM (HYSCORE) experiments on these radicals revealed the same magnetic interaction with an 14N nucleus as found for menasemiquinone stabilized at the QD site of E. coli NarGHI and assigned to His66 Nδ, a distal heme axial ligand. Moreover, this signature was lost in the NarGHIH66Y mutant, which is known to be unable to react with quinols. These findings demonstrate that NarGHI-bound USQ can be formed and detected by EPR. They also provide the first direct experimental evidence for similar binding of natural menasemiquinones and ubisemiquinones within the same protein Q site of NarGHI.
Lieutaud A, van Lis R, Duval S, Capowiez L, Muller D, Lebrun R, Lignon S , Fardeau M-L, Lett M-C, Nitschke W, and Schoepp-Cothenet B.
Duval S, Santini JM, Nitschke W, Hille R, and Schoepp-Cothenet B
Here, we describe the characterization of the [2Fe-2S] clusters of arsenite oxidases from Rhizobium sp. NT-26 and Ralstonia sp. 22. Both reduced Rieske proteins feature EPR signals similar to their homologs from Rieske-cyt b complexes, with g values at 2.027, 1.88, and 1.77. Redox titrations in a range of pH values showed that both [2Fe-2S] centers have constant Em values up to pH 8 at ∼+210 mV. Above this pH value, the Em values of both centers are pH-dependent, similar to what is observed for the Rieske-cyt b complexes. The redox properties of these two proteins, together with the low Em value (+160 mV) of the Alcaligenes faecalis arsenite oxidase Rieske (confirmed herein), are in line with the structural determinants observed in the primary sequences, which have previously been deduced from the study of Rieske-cyt b complexes. Since the published Em value of the Chloroflexus aurantiacus Rieske (+100 mV) is in conflict with this sequence analysis, we re-analyzed membrane samples of this organism and obtain a new value (+200 mV). Arsenite oxidase activity was affected by quinols and quinol analogs, which is similar to what is found with the Rieske-cyt b complexes. Together, these results show that the Rieske protein of arsenite oxidase shares numerous properties with its counterpart in the Rieske-cyt b complex. However, two cysteine residues, strictly conserved in the Rieske-cyt b-Rieske and considered to be crucial for its function, are not conserved in the arsenite oxidase counterpart. We discuss the role of these residues.
Fourmond V, Sabaty M, Arnoux D, Bertrand P, Pignol D, Léger C.
We examined the kinetics of nitrate reduction by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) by using protein film voltammetry and solution assays. We demonstrate that, under turnover conditions, the enzyme exists as a mixture of active and inactive forms which interconvert on a time scale that is much slower than turnover. The dead-end species accumulates under mildly reducing conditions and at high nitrate concentration, resulting in substrate inhibition and in an uncommon hysteresis in the voltammetric signature. Solution assays with two electron donors having different reduction potentials fully support the electrochemical results. This illustrates the consequences of the high flexibility of the active site molybdenum coordination sphere and questions the conclusions from earlier studies in which attempts were made to trap catalytic intermediates of Nap in experiments carried out under turnover conditions at very high substrate concentration.
Fourmond V, Burlat B, Dementin S, Sabaty M, Arnoux D, Etienne E, Guigliarelli B, Bertrand P, Pignol D, Léger C
Biochemistry. 2010 Mar 23;49(11):2424-32. doi: 10.1021/bi902140e.
Rhodobacter sphaeroides periplasmic nitrate reductase (Rs NapAB) is one of the enzymes whose assays give odd results: in spectrophotometric assays with methyl viologen as the electron donor, the activity increases as the reaction progresses, whereas the driving force provided by the soluble redox partner decreases; in protein film voltammetry (PFV), whereby the enzyme directly exchanges electrons with an electrode, the activity of NapAB decreases at large overpotential, whereas a monotonic increase is expected [Elliott, S. J., et al. (2002) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1555, 54−59]. The relations between these phenomena and the catalytic mechanism are still debated. By studying NapAB mutants, we found that the peculiar dependences of electrochemical and solution activities on driving force are greatly affected by substituting certain amino acids that are located in the vicinity of the active site (M153, Q384, R392); this led us to establish and discuss the relation between the experimental parameters of the electrochemical and spectrophotometric assays: we show that the rate of reduction of the enzyme (which depends on the electrode potential or on the concentration of reduced MV) modulates the activity of the enzyme, but the “solution potential” does not. Our results also support the view that the complex profiles of activity versus potential are fingerprints of the active site chemistry, rather than direct consequences of changes in the redox states of relays that are remote from the active site.
Grimaldi S, Arias-Cartin R, Lanciano P, Lyubenova S, Endeward B, Prisner TF, Magalon A, Guigliarelli B
The membrane-bound heterotrimeric nitrate reductase A (NarGHI) catalyzes the oxidation of quinols in the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli and reduces nitrate to nitrite in the cytoplasm. The enzyme strongly stabilizes a menasemiquinone intermediate at a quinol oxidation site (QD) located in the vicinity of the distal heme bD. Here molecular details of the interaction between the semiquinone radical and the protein environment have been provided using advanced multifrequency pulsed EPR methods. 14N and 15N ESEEM and HYSCORE measurements carried out at X-band (∼9.7 GHz) on the wild-type enzyme or the enzyme uniformly labeled with 15N nuclei reveal an interaction between the semiquinone and a single nitrogen nucleus. The isotropic hyperfine coupling constant Aiso(14N) ∼0.8 MHz shows that it occurs via an H-bond to one of the quinone carbonyl group. Using 14N ESEEM and HYSCORE spectroscopies at a lower frequency (S-band, ∼3.4 GHz), the 14N nuclear quadrupolar parameters of the interacting nitrogen nucleus (κ = 0.49, η = 0.50) were determined and correspond to those of a histidine Nδ, assigned to the heme bD ligand His-66 residue. Moreover S-band 15N ESEEM spectra enabled us to directly measure the anisotropic part of the nitrogen hyperfine interaction (T(15N) = 0.16 MHz). A distance of ∼2.2 Åbetween the carbonyl oxygen and the nitrogen could then be calculated. Mechanistic implications of these results are discussed in the context of the peculiar properties of the menasemiquinone intermediate stabilized at the QD site of NarGHI.
Fourmond V, Lautier T, Baffert C, Leroux F, Liebgott PP, Dementin S, Rousset M, Arnoux P, Pignol D, Meynial-Salles I, Soucaille P, Bertrand P, Léger C
Chronoamperometric experiments with adsorbed electrocatalysts are commonly performed either for analytical purposes or for studying the catalytic mechanism of a redox enzyme. In the context of amperometric sensors, the current may be recorded as a function of time while the analyte concentration is being increased to determine a linearity range. In mechanistic studies of redox enzymes, chronoamperometry proved powerful for untangling the effects of electrode potential and time, which are convoluted in cyclic voltammetric measurements, and for studying the energetics and kinetics of inhibition. In all such experiments, the fact that the catalyst’s coverage and/or activity decreases over time distorts the data. This may hide meaningful features, introduce systematic errors, and limit the accuracy of the measurements. We propose a general and surprisingly simple method for correcting for electrocatalyst desorption and inactivation, which greatly increases the precision of chronoamperometric experiments. Rather than subtracting a baseline, this consists in dividing the current, either by a synthetic signal that is proportional to the instant electroactive coverage or by the signal recorded in a control experiment. In the latter, the change in current may result from film loss only or from film loss plus catalyst inactivation. We describe the different strategies for obtaining the control signal by analyzing various data recorded with adsorbed redox enzymes: nitrate reductase, NiFe hydrogenase, and FeFe hydrogenase. In each case we discuss the trustfulness and the benefit of the correction. This method also applies to experiments where electron transfer is mediated, rather than direct, providing the current is proportional to the time-dependent concentration of catalyst.